Book Hotel

Book Rental Car

Cheap Flights




Places of Interest
  Aalborg Carnival
  Kronborg Castle
  Legoland Billund
  Little Mermaid statue
  Odense Zoo
  Randers Tropical Zoo
  The Old Town, Århus
  Tivoli Friheden
  Tivoli Gardens
  More Danish Attractions


Towns and Cities
  More Danish Cities

Travel Guides


   Danish Recipes
   Denmark Country Information
   Travel Downloads
   Travel eBooks
   Travel Magazines
   More Links

Click here


Travel Guide 2   >   Europe   >   Denmark   >   History


Danish History

Denmark has been inhabited for a very long time. There is evidence of human habitation at least as long ago as 12500 BCE, and evidence of agriculture since 3900 BCE.

By the time of the Nordic Bronze Age (1800 BCE to 600 BCE), burial mounds began to appear in Denmark. Among the finds from this period are many lurs (a type of horn-like musical instrument), and the Trundholm sun chariot (Danish: Solvognen) - a bronze statue of a horse pulling a large bronze disc.

The Iron Age in Denmark is generally divided into three periods: the Pre-Roman Iron Age (approximately 500 BCE to 1 AD), the Roman Iron Age (approximately 1 AD to 400 AD), and the Germanic Iron Age (400 AD to 800 AD). Archaeological evidence shows that native people gradually migrated South, and the first Danish people came to Denmark during the Roman Iron Age (previously Jutland and many Danish islands had been inhabited by Jutes, who in turn later migrated to southern Britain).

During the 8th to 10th centuries, people from Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden, and Norway) were known as the Vikings. During this period, Viking explorers sailing West reached Iceland, Greenland, and Canada ("Vinland"). Meanwhile, other groups of Vikings explorered, trade with, raided, and settled in many other parts of Europe, and beyond - including conquering parts of England ("Danelaw"), parts of Ireland, and parts of France (Normandy).


The Danes were united and Christianized in about 965 by King Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson (c. 935 to c. 986; King of Denmark c. 958 to c. 986 ; King of Norway c. 970 to 986). Eventually, King Cnut the Great (c 985 to 1035) rules a North Sea empire that included Denmark, Norway, England, and even parts of Sweden. By the high and late Middle Ages, the Danish kingdom included not only Denmark itself, but also Skåneland (a region which is today the three southwestern provinces of Sweden), Danish Estonia, and the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein (most of which today fall within the German state of Schleswig-Holstein).

In 1397, Queen Margaret I became ruler of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden - a personal union, known as the Kalmar Union (Danish/Norwegian/DanishSwedish: Kalmarunionen). The next century plus of Scandinavian history is dominated by the history of the Kalmar Union, with Sweden repeatedly breaking away, and then being reconquered. The Kalmar Union effectively ended in 1523, when the Swedish King Gustav Vasa conquered Stockholm, although Denmark did launch to subsequent attempts, ultimately unsuccessfully, to regain control over Sweden - the Northern Seven Years War (1563 to 1570), and the Kalmar War (1611 to 1613).

Following the Kalmar War, King Christian IV of Denmark, using monies collected from a war indemnity paid by Sweden, built several new towns and cities. including Christiania (Oslo) in Norway after the original city of Olso burnt down, Christiansand (today Kristiansand in Norway), Christianstad (today Kristianstad in Sweden) Christianshavn (today a suburb of Copenhagen, and, as a planned rival to Hamburg, Lykstad (today Gl¨ckstadt in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). Additionally, the Danish East India Company (Danish: Dansk Østindisk Kompagni) was founded, with the intention of establishing trade with India and colonizing Sri Lanka. Ultimately the Danish empire would ultimately consist of a number of small colonies and trading posts on the Indian coast (sold to Britain in 1839 to 1845), the Nicobar Islands (sold to Britain in 1868), a number of trading stations and forts in West Africa known as the "Danish Gold Coast" (sold to Britain in 1850), and the Danish West Indies (sold to the United States in 1917, and today known as the US Virgin Islands), as well Norway (lost to Sweden in 1814), Iceland (an independent ingdom in personal union with Denmark from 1918, and a fully independent republic from 1944), as well as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Denmark itself.

Denmark had adopted Lutheranism in 1536. There was a brief civil war, the Count's Feud (Danish: : Grevens Fejde), that took place between 1534 and 1536, during this transition, which was to have important consequences later. During the war, Swedish troops were invited into Scania (the southernmost province of Skåneland) at the Danish King's invitation, to surpress his rebellious subjects. However, although the Swedes did hand back the territory to Denmark initially, this whetted Sweden's appetite to conquer the territory, and ultimately they would do so (in 1658).

King Christian IV also became involved in the Third Years War (1618 to 1648). During the war, King Christian IV tried to make Denmark leader of the Lutheran states in Germany, but suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Lutter (1626), and was forced to withdraw from the war. Denmark then suffered plague, and series of disastrous military defeats to Sweden - including the loss of Skåneland, Gotland (a Baltic Sea island), Bornholm (another Baltic island), and several provinces of Norway - and narrowly escaped losing its independence completely.

Denmark subsequently tried and failed to regain Skåneland in the Scanian War (1675 to 1679), but did manage to regain control parts of Schleswig and Holstein in southern Jutland as a result of the Great Northern War (1700 to 1721).

During the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark initially tried to pursue a policy of neutrality between Britain and France, and joined the League of Armed Neutrality alongside Russia, Sweden, and Prussia. The British however considered this to be a hostile act (as members of the League continued to trade with France), and attacked Copenhagen and the Danish fleet in 1801 and 1807.

Subsequently, the Denmark-Norway fought a naval war with the British ("The Gunboat War") from 1807 to 1814. As a result of this war, Denmark-Norway went bankrupt in 1813. At the subsequent Treaty of Kiel (1814), Denmark lost Norway to Sweden, and Heligoland (an island in the North Sea) to Britain.

Denmark became a constitutional monarchy in 1849, and as mentioned previously sold its colonies in Africa (the Danish Gold Coast) and India to Britain in the 1850s and 1868s. One traumatic event during this period, was the loss of Schleswig and Holstein in 1864, following war with Prussia and Austria in the Second War of Schleswig (Danish: 2. Slesvigske Krig; German: Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg). After the Second War of Schleswig, Denmark adopted a policy of neutrality. It was able to main its neutral status during World War 1.

After World War 1, Iceland was granted home rule, and became an independent kingdom in personal union with Denmark. Additionally, following a plebiscite, Northern Schleswig was regained by Denmark from Germany.

Immediately prior to World War II, Denmark was still neutral, and had in fact signed a non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939. Nevertheless, German troops invaded and occupied the country on April 9th 1940 after overcoming only minimal military resistance. Until 1943, the occupation was relatively lenient, and there was a degree of cooperation between the Danish government and the German occupiers. However there was an armed resistance movement from 1943 onwards, and additionally, thanks to the efforts of the Danish resistance, the vast majority of Danish Jews survived the war.

During World War II, Iceland severed links with Denmark, and Denmark was separated from the Faroe Islands and Greenland (occupied by the British and Americans). After the war, there was a period of constitutional reform - the Faroe Islands gained home rule in 1948 - Greenland became an integral part of Denmark in 1953, and gained home rule in 1979, but was awarded self determination in 2009.

Denmark also became a founder member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), the United Nations, and NATO (abandoning its previous policy of neutrality). In 1973, after a referendum, Denmark joined the European Economic Community (today known as the European Union).

Below are some books about the history of Denmark:

Comments about Danish History

Please share your comments about the history of Denmark:


Books about Danish History

Disclosure: Products details and descriptions provided by Our company may receive a payment if you purchase products from them after following a link from this website.

How to Be Danish: A Journey to the Cultural Heart of Denmark

By Patrick Kingsley

Atria Books/Marble Arch Press
Released: 2014-02-04
Hardcover (192 pages)

How to Be Danish: A Journey to the Cultural Heart of Denmark
List Price: $17.99*
Lowest New Price: $6.99*
Lowest Used Price: $2.99*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 22:27 Pacific 5 Feb 2020 More Info)

Click Here
  • Orders are despatched from our UK warehouse next working day.
Product Description:
Part reportage, part travelogue, this is a fascinating introduction to contemporary Danish culture for anyone who wants to know more about the world’s happiest nation.

Denmark is the country of the moment. Recently named the happiest nation in the world, it’s the home of The Killing and Noma, the world’s best (and most eccentric) restaurant. We wear their sweaters, watch their thrillers, and covet their cool modern design, but how much do we really know about the Danes themselves? Part reportage, part travelogue, How to Be Danish fills in the gaps—an introduction to contemporary Danish culture that spans politics, television, food, architecture, and design.

A History of Denmark (Macmillan Essential Histories)

By Knud J. V. Jespersen

Red Globe Press
Released: 2018-09-12
Paperback (276 pages)

A History of Denmark (Macmillan Essential Histories)
List Price: $47.99*
Lowest New Price: $22.83*
Lowest Used Price: $33.12*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 22:27 Pacific 5 Feb 2020 More Info)

Click Here
Product Description:

In this introductory guide, Knud Jespersen traces the process of disintegration and reduction that helped to form the modern Danish state, and the historical roots of Denmark's international position. Beginning with the Reformation in the sixteenth century, Jespersen explains how the Denmark of today was shaped by wars, territorial losses, domestic upheavals, new methods of production, and changes in thought. Focusing on the interplay between history, politics and economics, this illuminating text offers an insider’s view of Danish identity formation over the last centuries.

This engaging textbook is an ideal resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses on Danish, Scandinavian or Nordic History. Concise and accessible, it will also appeal to anyone interested in gaining a clear understanding of the development of Denmark.

Denmark - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture

By Mark Salmon

Released: 2019-06-24
Paperback (168 pages)

Denmark - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture
List Price: $11.99*
Lowest New Price: $7.46*
Lowest Used Price: $9.71*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 22:27 Pacific 5 Feb 2020 More Info)

Click Here
Product Description:
Mention Denmark and some people will think of marauding Vikings with horned helmets or one of Denmark’s more famous exports—Carlsberg beer—or the fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen. But of the Danes themselves they may know very little. The Danes tend to be more relaxed and less formal than their fellow Scandinavians—and more independently minded. In fact, Denmark used to be referred to by its puritanical northern neighbors as “the loose woman to the south.” This book gives an insider’s perspective on Danish home, work, and social life, and on the Jantelov—the principles underpinning the traditional Scandinavian virtues of modesty, equality, and social cohesion, but which also warn against the dangers of individualism. This book offers many practical tips on travelers should conduct themselves in Denmark and what to expect in social situations. Readers will discover that, beneath their quiet northern reserve, the Danish people are friendly, fair-minded, civilized, and warm.

A History of Denmark (Palgrave Essential Histories Series)

By Knud J. V. Jespersen

Released: 2011-07-19
Paperback (259 pages)

A History of Denmark (Palgrave Essential Histories Series)
List Price: $31.00*
Lowest New Price: $34.47*
Lowest Used Price: $24.29*
Usually ships in 2-3 business days*
*(As of 22:27 Pacific 5 Feb 2020 More Info)

Click Here
  • Palgrave MacMillan
Product Description:

Knud Jespersen traces the historical roots of the modern Danish state and Denmark's international position. This revised, updated and expanded new edition features additional material on issues such as the Danish church, the Enlightenment, cultural history, World War II, current NATO debates and the 2006 "cartoon crisis."

The Anatomy of Denmark: Archaeology and History from the Ice Age to AD 2000

By Klavs Randsborg

Brand: Bristol Classical Press
Released: 2009-09-14
Paperback (192 pages)

The Anatomy of Denmark: Archaeology and History from the Ice Age to AD 2000
List Price: $26.95*
Lowest New Price: $26.31*
Lowest Used Price: $35.46*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 22:27 Pacific 5 Feb 2020 More Info)

Click Here
  • Used Book in Good Condition
Product Description:

"The Anatomy of Denmark" is a concise, well illustrated history of the accomplishments and cultural heritage of the people living on what is now Danish territory since the Ice Age. The archeology and history of the earlier period (before AD 1200) is given as much weight as is the more recent past, unlike standard history books which emphasize written texts and more modern times. The book demonstrates the deep roots of a successful, well protected region through the ages. Strategically situated between two seas, as well as between larger Scandinavia and Central Europe, this populous beautiful country has always been both close to the centers of development and somewhat protected from foreign excesses. A particular talent for social organization, education, management and production has taken small Denmark out into the world ever since the Ice Age. "The Anatomy of Denmark" is clearly written and lavishly furnished with illustrations and tables. It provides an brief, fact-packed introduction for anyone interested in this small thriving country - archaeologist, historian, tourist and business visitor alike.

Danish Medieval History (Danish medieval history & Saxo Grammaticus)

By Niels Skyum-Nielsen

Museum Tusculanum Press
Paperback (258 pages)

Danish Medieval History (Danish medieval history & Saxo Grammaticus)
List Price: $11.00*
Lowest New Price: $11.00*
Lowest Used Price: $16.95*
Temporarily out of stock. Order now and we'll deliver when available. We'll e-mail you with an estimated delivery date as soon as we have more information. Your credit card will not be charged until we ship the item.*
*(As of 22:27 Pacific 5 Feb 2020 More Info)

Click Here
Product Description:
Danish Medieval History - New Currents

A History of Denmark

By Paulle Lauring

Host & Son
Hardcover (274 pages)

A History of Denmark
Lowest New Price: $77.38*
Lowest Used Price: $12.99*
Usually ships in 1-2 business days*
*(As of 22:27 Pacific 5 Feb 2020 More Info)

Click Here
Product Description:
Clean copy in good condition.

Danish Modern Furniture, 1930-2016: The Rise, Decline and Re-emergence of a Cultural Market Category (Studies in History and Social Sciences)

By Per H. Hansen

University Press of Southern Denmark
Hardcover (522 pages)

Danish Modern Furniture, 1930-2016: The Rise, Decline and Re-emergence of a Cultural Market Category (Studies in History and Social Sciences)
List Price: $53.00*
Lowest New Price: $42.40*
Lowest Used Price: $98.19*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 22:27 Pacific 5 Feb 2020 More Info)

Click Here
Product Description:
"Business and economic historians will greatly welcome the publication of Per Hansen's masterly history of Danish modern furniture. The originality and extent of the empirical research behind the book is outstanding, but the fundamental contribution is the compelling re-writing of existing explanations of the global success of this category. Hansen recasts the story of Danish furniture in terms of cultural entrepreneurship, and explores how tastes and fashion were shaped by a cultural brand narrative. This methodology makes the book relevant far beyond specialists in Danish furniture. It is a landmark publication in business history."--Geoffrey Jones, Isidor Straus Professor of Business History, Harvard Business School *** "The translation of Per H. Hansen's magisterial history of Danish modern furniture has been eagerly awaited for some time. The book presents a refreshing perspective from a business historian who weaves together ideas about image, branding, and national identity to reposition the standard narrative of modern Danish furniture. Thoroughly researched and clearly argued, it makes valuable archival information available to the English reader for the first time and will become a standard reference on the subject."--Bobbye Tigerman, Marilyn B. and Calvin B. Gross Curator, Decorative Arts and Design, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and Monica Obniski, Demmer Curator of 20th and 21st Century Design, Milwaukee Art Museum *** "Per H. Hansen's book is an invaluable text for anyone wanting to understand why 'mid-century modern' is making a comeback in a different century and rapidly capturing markets and minds. And, the answer the book provides is not just about fashion cycles, aesthetic value, or popular culture, but a deep and insightful account of how narrative and materiality interact to transform creative expression into commercial and cultural reality. This comprehensive business history of the rise, fall, and rise again of Danish Modern design is for academics, design professionals, critics, and enthusiasts alike. Rarely comes along a book that adequately speaks to such a wide-ranging audience."--Mukti Khaire, Girish and Jaidev Reddy Professor of Practice at Cornell Tech and the Cornell SC Johnson College of Business *** "Professor Per H. Hansen's book on Danish modern furniture design sheds new light on what has become an internationally well-known phenomenon. While scholars and others have offered different explanations of Danish Modern's success, Per H. Hansen's great achievement is the combination of a number of approaches and his close reading of original sources. From the combination of business history, design history, material culture and sociology a new understanding of Danish Modern's rise, decline and re-emergence as a cultural market category comes to light. I am confident that this book will appeal to a big audience."--Anne-Louise Sommer, Director of Designmuseum Danmark and adjunct professor of design culture and history at the University of Southern Denmark. (Series: Studies in History and Social Sciences, Vol. 554) [Subject: Design, Danish Studies, Furniture Design, History, Mid-Century Modern]

A Family of Kings: The Descendants of Christian IX of Denmark

By Theo Aronson

Thistle Publishing
Released: 2014-12-03
Kindle Edition (428 pages)

A Family of Kings: The Descendants of Christian IX of Denmark
Product Description:
In 1863, Queen Victoria decreed that Edward, Prince of Wales, should marry Princess Alexandra, daughter of the obscure and unsophisticated heir to the Danish throne. The beauty, grace and charm of Prince Christian's daughter had prevailed over the Queen's intense dislike of the Danish royal house, and had even persuaded the embarrassingly difficult Bertie to agree to the match.

Thus began the fairy-tale saga of a family that handed on its good looks, unaffectedness, and democratic manners to almost every royal house of modern Europe. For, in the year that Alexandra became Princess of Wales, her brother Willie was elected King of the Hellenes ; her father at last succeeded to the Danish throne; her sister Dagmar was soon to become wife of the future Tsar Alexander III of Russia; and her youngest sister Thyra later married the de jure King of Hanover.

A Family of Kings is the story of the crowned children and grandchildren of Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark, focusing on the half-century before the First World War. It is an intimate, domestic study of a close-knit family, the individual personalities, and the courts to which they came. Without doubt, the chic and beautiful Alexandra epitomized the spectacular flowering of the Danish dynasty; and just as she brought an unprecedented popularity to the sobriety of the English court, so her brothers and sisters helped enliven the staid European scene.

The outstanding success of Theo Aronson's previous book, Grandmama of Europe, confirms his reputation as a chronicler of the fortunes of Europe's ruling houses. A Family of Kings bears the hallmark of the author's remarkable talent, and provides a fascinating evocation of the splendour and extravagance, and not infrequent tragedy, of nineteenth and twentieth century royalty.


Note: Our company does NOT provide travel, vacation, hotel, car rental services or associated products or services. Any links (including but not limited to banners, text links, or search forms) to such items on this web site are adverts from third parties. Sorry we can NOT answer questions about these types of products or services.

Unless specifically noted on the page in question, our company is NOT associated with attractions or places of interest that may be described on this website. In such cases, we have often provided links to the official sites where possible, or other third party sites containing useful information, purely as a courtesy and for informational purposes only.

All information about attractions, places of interest, travel destinations, travel services, etc., was believed to be correct at the time it was prepared, but may be change at any time. Readers are advised to check with their travel agent, travel provider, or the attraction operator, for current information.

Copyright © 2007-2020, Answers 2000 Limited


Disclosure: Our company's websites' content (including this website's content) includes advertisements for our own company's websites, products, and services, and for other organization's websites, products, and services. In the case of links to other organization's websites, our company may receive a payment, (1) if you purchase products or services, or (2) if you sign-up for third party offers, after following links from this website. Unless specifically otherwise stated, information about other organization's products and services, is based on information provided by that organization, the product/service vendor, and/or publicly available information - and should not be taken to mean that we have used the product/service in question. Additionally, our company's websites contain some adverts which we are paid to display, but whose content is not selected by us, such as Google AdSense ads. For more detailed information, please see Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures

In Association With
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to
In Association With
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon EU Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to
As an Amazon Associate, our company earns from qualifying purchases. Amazon, the Amazon logo, Endless, and the Endless logo are trademarks of, Inc. or its affiliates.

Our sites use cookies, some of which may already be set on your computer. Use of our site constitutes consent for this. For details, please see Privacy.

Click privacy for information about our company's privacy, data collection and data retention policies, and your rights.

Contact Us   Privacy   Terms of Use   Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures